Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Cools the Earth

© O. R. Adams Jr. 2016

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For the theory of man-made global warming, the letters AGW are used . The letters stand for
anthropogenic global warming, and AGW is a general term used by writers on the subject.

Because of what they claim is AGW, caused primarily by CO2, the Global Warmers want this country and the world to give up the best and most efficient energy sources we have – coal, gasoline, diesel, and natural gas; and replace them with wind and solar power, which is much less efficient and dependable, and much more costly. It has also never been explained how wind and solar power could replace the tremendous amount of energy now used. Their claims are both fraudulent and insane.

It is true that the use of the better and more efficient energy sources, called fossil fuels, puts more CO2 into the atmosphere.

The basis of the claim that CO2 causes global warming, as stated and depicted by the "Skeptical Science" website of one of the major global warming proponents, is[1]:

The greenhouse gas qualities of carbon dioxide have been known for over a century. In 1861, John Tyndal published laboratory results identifying carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas that absorbed heat rays (longwave radiation). Since then, the absorptive qualities of carbon dioxide have been more precisely quantified by decades of laboratory measurements (Herzberg 1953, Burch 1962, Burch 1970, etc).

The greenhouse effect occurs because greenhouse gases let sunlight (shortwave radiation) pass through the atmosphere. The earth absorbs sunlight, warms then reradiates heat (infrared or longwave radiation). The outgoing longwave radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This heats the atmosphere which in turn re-radiates longwave radiation in all directions. Some of it makes its way back to the surface of the earth. So with more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, we expect to see less longwave radiation escaping to space at the wavelengths that carbon dioxide absorb. We also expect to see more infrared radiation returning back to Earth at these same wavelengths.

 

Satellite measurements of outgoing longwave radiation

Please note that the above says nothing whatsoever about the incoming infrared radiation from the sun, which is far greater than the small amount of infrared emitted back by the earth. The infrared radiation from the sun is about half of the sun's total radiation, as shown later in this article. CO2 absorbs incoming infrared radiation from the sun in the same way that it absorbs outgoing infrared radiation from the Earth.

 Another fallacy is failure of the Global Warmers (AGW proponents) to take into consideration the  simple  fact that the when Earth's surface is heated by the sun where there is ground, a part of the heat goes down into the ground by what is called conduction, and not out into the air and atmosphere. The same is true where the earth's surface is water. This is a simple scientific law of thermodynamics and heat transfer. The following is from a scientific article on this[2]:

Ground Heat Transfer (G)

The third major use of radiant energy is to warm the subsurface of the Earth. Heat is transferred from the surface downwards via conduction. Like in the case of sensible heat transfer, a temperature gradient must exist between the surface and the subsurface for heat transfer to occur. Heat is transferred downwards when the surface is warmer than the subsurface (positive ground heat flux). If the subsurface is warmer than the surface then heat is transferred upwards (negative ground heat flux).

 

Figure 4.23 Ground heat transfer                                                                                                              

 

 

When the ground is heated by the sun, the ground right below the surface is generally cooler than the top, and absorbs part of the surface heat. Water, which makes up most of the Earth's surface, has a higher conductivity than the ground or air.[3] A part of the heat from the Earth's surface is conducted downward and absorbed by the ground and the water. Thermodynamics explains this conduction of heat. Determining the amount of the heat absorbed by the Earth is complicated – particularly with ground surface with all of its differences and things placed on the ground. But this does not excuse scientists from completely ignoring it. Some of this heat is later radiated back into the atmosphere, and some is stored for long periods of time. Some is used for work, such as moving ocean currents, and not radiated back into the atmosphere. Some is used by humans, animals, and plants, and is not radiated back.

The Global Warmers completely ignore this conduction factor, and treat all of the heating of the Earth's surface as being reflected, conducted, and radiated back into the atmosphere. The following is a prime example from one of the foremost AGW proponents, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[4]:

Remember that about 29 percent of incoming sunlight is reflected back to space by bright particles in the atmosphere or bright ground surfaces, which leaves about 71 percent to be absorbed by the atmosphere (23 percent) and the land (48 percent). For the energy budget at Earth’s surface to balance, processes on the ground must get rid of the 48 percent of incoming solar energy that the ocean and land surfaces absorb. Energy leaves the surface through three processes: evaporation, convection, and emission of thermal infrared energy.

Illustration of the energy balance between Earth's surface and the atmosphere.

The surface absorbs about 48% of incoming sunlight. Three processes remove an equivalent amount of energy from the Earth’s surface: evaporation (25%), convection (5%), and thermal infrared radiation, or heat (net 17%). (NASA illustration by Robert Simmon. Photograph ©2006 Cyron.). [Emphasis added.]

In the above, although their arithmetic seems to be off 1% (25 + 5 + 17 = 47), they claim that all (an equivalent amount) goes up from the earth's surface by the processes shown. All of the heat from the Earth's surface is shown as going up – none down.

Below is another example from NASA[5]:

 Of the 51 units of solar radiation absorbed by Earth’s surface, 23 units are used to evaporate water, causing a loss of 23 units of heat at Earth’s surface. Seven (7) units are used for the processes of conduction and convection, also causing a loss of heat at Earth’s surface. The remaining units of the original 51 units of solar radiation are emitted from Earth’s surface as outgoing infrared radiation, also known as terrestrial radiation.

Please note that in the above all of the energy from Earth's surface is shown as going upward from the earth – none downward, not even of the conduction. This has to be scientifically wrong, as a matter of thermodynamics. The amount that would be conducted down from the Earth's surface (which includes all land and water) leaves less that could be radiated upward as infrared energy. All of this is completely ignored by the Global Warmers.

I will now use NASA's own figures to show that the cooling effect of CO2 on Earth's surface is far greater than the warming effect, although both are so small as to be negligible. One of the reasons that the effect is so small is that CO2 makes up only about .037% of the Earth's atmosphere.[6] Also, this small amount of CO2 is necessary for life on earth. It is a good and necessary substance. More of it helps the growth of plants, trees and other forms of life.

Composition of the Earth's atmosphere

air is made up of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and other gases (1%)

The primary error of the global warmers is completely ignoring the effect of CO2 on the incoming infrared radiation. The incoming infrared radiation is about 50% of all of the sun's radiation into Earth's atmosphere. (Wikipedia says it is 52-55%,[7] and a University of Oregon website says nearly 50%.[8]) CO2 absorbs this incoming infrared radiation in the same way that it absorbs the outgoing infrared radiation. At least half of the energy it absorbs is radiated upward as much as it is downward. By this it is clear that the cooling effect of CO2 is 50/17 or about 3 times the warming effect, using NASA's own figures for infrared radiation from the earth. And I believe that NASA's claim (shown above) that there is 17% infrared radiation from the earth is erroneous. I think that the cooling effect of CO2 is much greater than 50/17 times.

Some researchers claim that the cooling effect is about 100 times the warming effect. Researcher and writer, Alan Siddons, and Physicist, Charles Anderson, PhD, consider the cooling effect of CO2 to be 100 times the warming effect.[9]  The article of Anderson, which includes information from an article by Siddons, also states that "less than 1% of the cooling of the Earth's surface is due to IR [infrared] emission of the surface or the gases near the surface. More than 99% is due to direct contact and convection." This presents even further error in the Global Warmers' figures. Professor Nasif Nahle verifies this error.

Nasif Nahle is a University Professor at University Regiomontana, A. C., Monterrey, N. L., Mexico. He has degrees in Biology, Mathematics, Earth Sciences, and physics.[10] He has written extensively on AGW, showing many fallacies of the claims of Global Warmers. One comprehensive paper Nahle wrote is  Conduction is the Primary Mechanism of Heat Transfer at the Surface-Atmosphere Boundary.[11] This paper sates:

 In several articles (1)(2)(3)(4)(5), it has been demonstrated, from the strict standpoint of physics, thermodynamics and quantum mechanics, that the carbon dioxide is not physically capable of causing any global warming or climate change on Earth (1)(2)(3)(4)(5).    In this article, I demonstrate that the “greenhouse” effect, or warming of the atmosphere, is due to the energy exchange by conduction at the surface-atmosphere boundary and by convection from the boundary layer to other parcels of air.  [Emphasis added.] …

Radiation heat transfer at the surface-atmosphere boundary layer is a very weak process of energy exchange between both systems (1)(2). Conversely, the fundamental process of heat transfer at the surface-atmosphere boundary is by conduction (6). The energy absorbed by means of conduction from the surface to the atmosphere is transferred away by the air flow (convection). (6)

In the paper, Nahle then demonstrates the above by accepted thermodynamics formulas and mathematics.

Many of the global warmers are scientists. They could not help but know that their claims of AGW caused by CO2 are wrong. So why do they do it? Money! Al Gore got rich off of it. Science has become dominated by politics and money. If scientists go against AGW propaganda, their grants will disappear. A primary proponent of AGW is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which is a United Nations organization. Its history states[12]:

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations Organizations, the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess “the scientific, technical and socioeconomic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change.” [Emphasis added.]

The IPCC's formation, purpose and mission is based on the false assumption of AGW, which, in the above, is called "human-induced climate change." The truth would destroy the need for existence of the IPCC.  So it misinforms and defrauds the world.

The biggest and most expensive fraud in the history of mankind is being perpetrated on this country and the world.   


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